Pile foundations. Types and classification

Types of piles
According to the method of penetration into the ground of the following types of piles:
1. precast concrete,timber and steel,submerged in the ground without excavation, using hammers,vibratory hammers, vibrodrivein and indenting device,and a reinforced concrete pile-shell,s uglublenie vibratory hammers without dredging or partial dredging and not filled with concrete mix;
2. the pile-shell reinforced concrete,bury the vibratory hammer for excavation and fill partially or completely with concrete mix;
3. printed concrete and reinforced concrete,arranged in the ground by stacking concrete in wells,formed as a result of forced release (displacement) of the soil;
4. drilling of reinforced concrete,arranged in the ground by filling in drilled wells with concrete or installing them in concrete elements;
5. screw.

Piles in the ground
Under the terms of the interaction with the soil piles should be divided into piles-racks and hanging. To the piles-racks may be piles of all types,based on the rocky soil and the driven piles,in addition,a low-compression soils.
To a low-compression soils coarse-grained soils with sand filler of medium density and dense,and clay, solid consistency in water-saturated condition of deformation modulus of more than 50000 kPa. The resistance of the soil,except for the negative (negative) friction forces on the lateral surface of the piles / posts,in the calculation of the bearing capacity of soil bases on the compressive load should be ignored.
The hanging piles include piles of all types,based on compressible soils and transmitting the load on the Foundation soil side surface and bottom end.
Negative (negative) forces are called friction forces arising on the lateral surface of the piles at the sediment allowing ground and directed vertically downwards.
Driven concrete piles with a cross-sectional dimension of 0.8 m and the pile-shell with a diameter of 1 m or more should be divided:
1. by way of reinforcement –piles and piles-shells with non-stressed longitudinal reinforcement transverse reinforcement and pre-tensioned with a rod or wire of the longitudinal reinforcement (high-tensile wire and reinforcing ropes) with transverse reinforcement and without it;
2. the shape of the cross section on the pile square,rectangular,t-and I-sections,square with round cavity,hollow circular cross-section;
3. in the form of a longitudinal section on prismatic,cylindrical, and inclined side faces (pyramidal,trapezoidal,rhomboid);
4. design –solid and composite piles (from separate sections);
5. by construction, the lower end on the pile with a pointed or flat bottom,with flat or three-dimensional widening (clavate) and hollow piles with open or closed bottom end or camouflage fifth.

Piled Foundations

Piles driven with a camouflage suit of the fifth by driving a hollow pile of circular cross-section in the lower part with a closed hollow steel tip with subsequent filling of the cavity of the pile and tip the concrete mixture and a device using the camouflet explosion of a foot within the tip. In projects of pile Foundation with the use of driven piles with camouflet fifth should provide guidance on compliance with the requirements of production drilling and blasting,including when determining the permissible distance from existing buildings and structures to the place of explosion.
Printed piles by way of the device are divided into:
– printed,arranged by immersion pipe,the lower end of which is closed leave it in the ground Shoe or concrete plug,and then removing these pipes as you fill the well with concrete mix;
– printed vibrotekhnika arranged in punctured wells by filling the wells hard concrete mixture,sealing vibrostanok in a tube with a pointed lower end and attached to it a vibrator;
– printed in wystepowaniem box,arranged by punch in the ground wells pyramidal or conical shape and then filling them with concrete.
Drilled piles by way of the device are divided into:
bored of solid section, with caps and without them,concreted in wells drilled in silty-clay soils above the groundwater level without attaching walls of wells,and in all soils below the groundwater level –to reinforce the walls of the well clay mortar, or inventory recoverable casing pipes;
– bored hollow circular cross-section,arranged with the use of multi-wyposarzenie;
bored with compacted slaughter,arranged by utrambovyvaya in the bottom of hole gravel;
bored with the camouflage of the fifth,arranged by drilling wells with subsequent formation of widening the explosion and filling the well with concrete mix;
– CFA with a diameter of 0.15-0.25 m,arranged by the discharge (injection) of fine-grained concrete mix or cement-sand mortar in drilled wells;
– pile-columns,arranged by drilling wells with the widening or without stacking them manalicious cement-sand mortar and the lowering into the well a cylindrical or prismatic elements solid section with sides or diameter of 0.8 m and more;
– bureautique piles with camouflet fifth,different from the bored piles with camouflet fifth that after the formation of the camouflet broadening lowered into the borehole of concrete pile.

43 Photos of the Pile foundations. Types and classification

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